Mikumi National Park Tanzania

Mikumi National Park: A Guide to Tanzania’s Iconic Wildlife Reserve

Mikumi National Park is one of the most popular national parks in Tanzania. It is located in the southern part of the country, near the city of Morogoro. Established in 1964, Mikumi is the fourth largest national park in Tanzania, covering an area of 3,230 square kilometers. The park is known for its diverse wildlife, which includes lions, elephants, giraffes, zebras, and many other species.

The park is situated along the Tanzania-Zambia highway, which makes it easily accessible for visitors. It is an ideal destination for those who want to experience the African wilderness and observe wildlife in their natural habitat. The park offers a range of activities, including game drives, guided walks, and bird watching. Visitors can also explore the nearby Uluguru Mountains and participate in cultural tours to learn about the local way of life.

Key Takeaways

  • Mikumi National Park is located in southern Tanzania and is the fourth largest national park in the country.
  • The park is home to a diverse range of wildlife and offers a variety of activities for visitors, including game drives, guided walks, and cultural tours.
  • Mikumi National Park is easily accessible from the Tanzania-Zambia highway and is an ideal destination for those who want to experience the African wilderness.

Geography and Location

Mikumi National Park is located within the Selous ecosystem in Tanzania, covering an area of approximately 3,230 square kilometers. It is the fourth-largest national park in Tanzania and is part of a much larger ecosystem centered on the uniquely vast Selous Game Reserve. The park is situated 283 km west of Dar es Salaam, north of Selous, and en route to Ruaha, Udzungwa, and (for the intrepid) Katavi.

The park is crossed by Tanzania’s A-7 highway, which connects Dar es Salaam to Zambia through Morogoro and Iringa. This makes it easily accessible by road from various cities in Tanzania, with the most common way to access the park being by road from Morogoro, which is approximately a 4-hour drive.

Mikumi National Park is known for its diverse landscape, which includes grassy plains, baobabs, and black hardwood trees. The park’s location in the Selous ecosystem means that it is home to a wide variety of wildlife, including large herds of elephants, giraffes, zebras, wildebeests, and buffalos. Other animals residing in the park include lions, leopards, hyenas, and wild dogs. The park is also a birdwatcher’s paradise, with over 400 bird species, including the yellow-throated longclaw, Bateleur eagle, and lilac-breasted roller.

Overall, the geography and location of Mikumi National Park make it an ideal safari destination for those without much time, with almost guaranteed year-round wildlife sightings.

Mikumi  Park Map


Mikumi National Park was established in 1964 and covers an area of about 3,230 square kilometers. It is located in the southeastern part of Tanzania, near Morogoro. The park is named after the Mikumi floodplain, which is surrounded by mountain ranges.

The park shares a border and its game populations with the Selous Game Reserve, which is the largest game reserve in Tanzania. The two reserves together form a unique ecosystem that is home to a wide variety of wildlife.

Mikumi National Park was originally set up as a hunting reserve for colonial officials and their guests. However, in the 1960s, the Tanzanian government decided to convert the area into a national park to preserve the wildlife and habitat Wikipedia. Since then, the park has become a popular destination for tourists who come to see the diverse range of wildlife that inhabits the area.

Today, Mikumi National Park is one of Tanzania’s popular wildlife conservation areas. It is home to a large number of African elephants, lions, leopards, and many other species of animals and birds. The park is also an important migration route for wildebeest, zebras, and other grazing animals.

Flora and Fauna

Vegetation Types

Mikumi National Park is home to a diverse range of vegetation types, which are spread across its vast expanse of 3,230 km². The park is characterized by vast grassy plains, acacia woodlands, and miombo forests. The alluvial plain of the Mkata river basin dominates the northwestern region, while the vegetation in the southern area is mainly savannah and grassland. The vegetation in the park is a mix of deciduous and evergreen trees, shrubs, and grasses.

The park has a rich variety of flora, with over 400 plant species recorded. The most common trees in the park are baobab, acacia, and commiphora. The baobab trees are a popular attraction in the park, especially for photographers. The park also has a variety of wildflowers that bloom during the rainy season, adding a splash of color to the landscape.

Mikumi National Park Vegetation

Wildlife Species 

Mikumi National Park is renowned for its diverse ecosystems and abundant wildlife. The park is home to a variety of wildlife species, including elephants, lions, leopards, giraffes, zebras, wildebeests, impalas, and buffalos. The park is also home to a variety of primates, including baboons and vervet monkeys. The park is a haven for birdwatchers, with over 400 bird species recorded in the park.

The park’s proximity to Dar es Salaam, the largest city in Tanzania, adds to its convenience and allure. Visitors can take guided walking safaris to get close to the park’s flora and fauna. These safaris are led by experienced rangers who provide information about the park’s ecosystem. Game drives are also a popular activity in the park, with visitors having the opportunity to see the park’s wildlife up close.

In conclusion, Mikumi National Park is a must-visit destination for nature lovers and wildlife enthusiasts. The park’s diverse ecosystems and abundant wildlife make it a unique and unforgettable experience.

Mkata Floodplain: A Hub of Biodiversity

One of the park’s central features is the Mkata Floodplain, an area that is teeming with a diverse array of flora and fauna. During the wet season, this region transforms into a lush, green landscape, supporting an abundance of wildlife. The floodplain’s water sources attract a high concentration of animals, making it an ideal spot for game drives and wildlife photography in Mikumi national park.

As the seasons change, the Mkata Floodplain undergoes a dramatic transformation, with the dry season bringing a more arid and rugged beauty. Even then, the floodplain remains a hotspot for animal sightings as they congregate around the remaining water sources, providing a unique opportunity to observe the resilience of nature.

Tanzania Masai Giraffe

The Hippo Pools: A Window into Aquatic Life

Located just a short distance from the park entrance gate are the imoressive hippo pools which provide a prime location for viewing these massive and majestic animals as they wallow and play in the water.

Visitors in Mikumi national park can watch as the hippos roam through the pools, occasionally emerging to bask in the sun or satisfy their enormous appetites. The surrounding landscape is teeming with life, and the sight of a group of hippos sauntering through the water is a truly spectacular experience. The park itself is also home to a large number of birds, making it a haven for nature enthusiasts and birdwatchers.

Mikumi Hippo Pool

The Mountains and Hills: A Scenic Contrast

Beyond the flatlands, Mikumi National Park is bordered by mountains and hills that add a scenic contrast to the savannah. The park is flanked by the Uluguru Mountains to the east and the Rubeho Mountains to the west, which rise majestically from the plains and provide a stunning backdrop for sunset and sunrise views.

The lush, forested slopes of these mountains are a haven for hikers and those looking to explore beyond the typical game drive routes. Treks through these areas offer breathtaking vistas and the chance to encounter a variety of bird species, monkeys, and smaller forest-dwelling creatures that are as much a part of Mikumi’s ecosystem as the more prominent savannah inhabitants.

Mikumi National Park Mountains

The Vast Savannah: A Classic African Vista

Upon entering Mikumi National Park, visitors are greeted with the quintessential African landscape: the vast savannah. Endless golden grasslands stretch to the horizon, dotted with acacia trees and the occasional baobab – nature’s very own skyscrapers. This open terrain is not just breathtaking in its expanse; it’s also the stage for the drama of life that unfolds daily in the wild.

The savannah is the perfect backdrop for wildlife viewing. Here, you might witness herds of buffalo grazing, elephants roaming in their familial bonds, and giraffes elegantly striding through the grasslands. The flat plains also provide an excellent chance of spotting predators such as lions and cheetahs as they survey their kingdom or prepare for a hunt.

Savannah Mikumi Park

Tourism and Activities in Mikumi

Mikumi National Park is a popular tourist destination in Tanzania, known for its diverse wildlife and breathtaking landscapes. Visitors to the park can engage in a variety of activities, including safari tours, camping and lodging, and guided walks.

Experience the stunning beauty of the untouched wilderness of Mikumi National Park with day game drives available from 06:00 am to 18:00 pm. Observe the magnificent lions as they roam the vast terrain in search of their prey, offering a rare and breathtaking spectacle. Mikumi National Park, famous for its diverse wildlife and remarkable scenery, provides an unparalleled opportunity to witness unforgettable animal encounters.

Our game drives in Mikumi National Park feature open-sided 4WD land cruisers, land rovers, or customized vehicles with pop-up roofs, allowing for a full 180-degree view of the surroundings. Our knowledgeable and skilled driver guides will aid you in spotting wildlife and provide insightful information.

Join us on this exceptional journey and discover the wonders of this hidden treasure in Tanzania.

Explore the unspoiled marvels of Mikumi National Park safari like never before with our thrilling Night Game Drive. Embark on a journey into the secluded wilderness beneath the African night sky and observe the exciting nocturnal creatures that are often elusive during the daytime. Our Night Game Drive safari in Mikumi National Park commences at 18:30 and concludes at 22:00. You will have the chance to glimpse lions, leopards, hyenas, bat-eared foxes, porcupines, pangolins, and various nocturnal birds as they actively search for prey.

Your safety is of utmost importance to us, which is why we supply an armed ranger and a powerful spotlight capable of illuminating distances of several hundred meters.

Come and join Wilds of Africa in discovering Mikumi National Park at night and make memories that will endure for a lifetime.

Another popular activity in Mikumi National Park is guided walks. Visitors can take a guided walk through the park, accompanied by experienced guides who will point out the various plant and animal species that inhabit the park. Guided walks are a great way to explore the park in a more intimate and immersive way, and visitors can learn about the park’s ecology and conservation efforts.

In summary, Mikumi National Park offers a range of activities for visitors, including safari tours, camping and lodging, and guided walks. Visitors can choose from a range of options that suit their preferences and budget, and can explore the park’s diverse wildlife and breathtaking landscapes in a variety of ways.

A trip to Mikumi offers visitors the opportunity to engage in cultural experiences with the local communities residing near the park. There, they can gain insight into the traditions and daily routines of people who have coexisted with the wildlife for generations. This cultural interaction enhances the safari experience, highlighting the interconnectedness between humans and nature.

Maasai Tribes

Tourists have the chance to meet the Maasai tribespeople, renowned for their unique customs and attire. Immersing themselves in the Maasai way of life, including traditional dances and music, brings a valuable cultural aspect to the safari adventure.

Community Projects

Tourists can participate in various community projects surrounding Mikumi National Park, contributing to conservation initiatives and sustainable development. Engaging in these projects provides a fulfilling opportunity to support the local community.

Mikumi Crested CrownMikumi National Park is renowned for its excellent bird watching safari opportunities. More than 400 bird species call the park home, offering visitors a stunning display of vibrant avian wildlife in all shapes and sizes. Notable resident birds in the park include the beautiful lilac-breasted roller, the charming yellow-throated longclaw, and the impressive bateleur eagle. In addition, the park is a hub for migratory birds from Europe between November and April, allowing visitors to appreciate them in their natural habitat. For those interested in water-associated birds, the hippo pool and Mwanambogo dam are ideal locations to observe magnificent species such as the African fish eagle, African spoonbill, and hamerkop. Furthermore, the Mkata river provides a chance to witness the skillful fishing maneuvers of African openbills, while enjoying the breathtaking views.

Climate and Weather

Mikumi National Park has a tropical climate with two distinct seasons: the dry season and the wet season. The dry season runs from June to October, while the wet season runs from November to May. During the wet season, the park receives an average of 800mm of rainfall, which can make some areas of the park inaccessible.

The park’s temperature remains relatively constant throughout the year, with average temperatures ranging from 23°C to 27°C. However, the temperature can vary depending on the altitude of the park. For example, the temperature at the higher altitude of the park can be cooler than the temperature at the lower altitude.

The best time to visit Mikumi National Park is during the dry season, from June to October, when the park is dry and sunny. During this time, the vegetation is thinner, and animals gather around waterholes, making it easier to spot wildlife. The months of September and October are especially good for wildlife viewing, as big herds of animals come to drink at the last sources of water.

In contrast, the wet season can be challenging for visitors, as the park can become muddy and slippery, and some areas may be inaccessible. However, the wet season can be a good time to visit for birdwatchers, as many migratory birds come to the park during this time.

Visitors to Mikumi National Park should always be prepared for both hot and cold weather, as temperatures can vary depending on the time of day and altitude. It is recommended to bring lightweight, breathable clothing that can be layered and a waterproof jacket in case of rain.

Mikumi Climate & Weather Summary:

The period from June to October experiences dry weather, with daytime temperatures averaging at 27°C and nighttime temperatures dropping to around 18°C. Rainfall is uncommon during this time, although there may be sporadic showers towards the end of October. The short rainy season typically starts in November and December, usually bringing afternoon showers. January and February experience short but intense rains, in contrast to the earlier months. The heavy rainy season occurs from March to May, with frequent rainfall throughout the day.

Hotels and Accommodations

If you’re searching for accommodations in Mikumi, your hunt is over. Mikumi National Park provides a variety of choices to suit your preferences, including hotels, lodges, and camps. Whether you’re seeking the luxury of a hotel, the traditional appeal of a lodge, or the excitement of camping, Mikumi has it all. There are accommodation options within the park, such as Vuma Hill Tented Camp, Stanley Copjes, and Mikumi Wildlife Camp. Additionally, there are establishments just outside the park, such as Camp Bastian, Vamos Hotel, Tanswiss Motel, and Adventure Camp.

Reserve your stay now and prepare for a safari adventure like no other.

Park Management

Mikumi National Park is managed by the Tanzania National Parks Authority (TANAPA), which is responsible for the conservation and protection of the park’s wildlife and natural resources. TANAPA’s main objective is to ensure that the park’s ecological balance is maintained, while providing visitors with a safe and enjoyable experience.

To achieve this objective, TANAPA has established a set of rules and regulations that all visitors must adhere to. These rules include guidelines on camping, game drives, and walking safaris. Visitors are also required to respect the park’s wildlife and natural environment by not littering or disturbing the animals.

In addition to enforcing these rules, TANAPA is also responsible for the park’s infrastructure. This includes the maintenance of roads, trails, and campsites, as well as the provision of visitor facilities such as toilets and picnic areas. TANAPA also works closely with local communities to ensure that they benefit from the park’s resources, while also promoting sustainable development in the surrounding area.

Overall, TANAPA’s management of Mikumi National Park has been successful in maintaining the park’s ecological balance and preserving its wildlife and natural resources. This has allowed visitors to enjoy a unique and unforgettable safari experience, while also contributing to the conservation of Tanzania’s natural heritage.

Research and Education

Mikumi National Park is not only a tourist attraction but also a vital center for research and education. The park is home to a wide range of flora and fauna, which makes it an ideal location for researchers and students to conduct their studies. The park management has established a research center that provides facilities for researchers to conduct their studies.

The research center is equipped with laboratories, libraries, and other facilities that researchers need to conduct their studies. The center provides an opportunity for researchers to conduct studies on various topics, including wildlife ecology, biodiversity, and conservation. The data collected from these studies is used to inform park management decisions and conservation policies.

The park management also collaborates with universities and other research institutions to conduct joint research projects. These projects provide an opportunity for students to gain hands-on experience in their field of study. The park management also organizes field trips for students to visit the park and learn about its ecology and conservation efforts.

Moreover, the park management conducts educational programs for local communities to raise awareness about conservation and environmental protection. These programs include workshops, seminars, and training sessions. The park management also provides educational materials, such as brochures and posters, to educate visitors about the park’s ecology and conservation efforts.

In conclusion, Mikumi National Park plays a crucial role in research and education. The park management provides facilities and opportunities for researchers and students to conduct their studies and gain hands-on experience. The park management also conducts educational programs for local communities and visitors to raise awareness about conservation and environmental protection.


Mikumi National Park is traversed by several major infrastructures, including Tanzania’s A-7 highway, power lines, railways, an oil pipeline, and an optic fibre. The influence of these infrastructures on the park’s ecosystem has been a subject of research in recent years.

According to a study conducted in 2018, the presence of multiple linear infrastructures in the park has led to a decline in the diversity of small mammals. The study found that the capture rates of small mammal species were significantly lower near the infrastructures than in areas further away. This decline in diversity could have a cascading effect on the park’s ecosystem, as small mammals play a crucial role in seed dispersal, pollination, and pest control.

The A-7 highway, which runs through the park, is a major transportation route that connects Tanzania’s major cities. The highway has been a source of concern for conservationists, as it poses a significant threat to the park’s wildlife. According to a report by the Tanzania National Parks Authority (TANAPA), road accidents involving wildlife are a common occurrence on the highway. To mitigate the impact of the highway on the park’s wildlife, TANAPA has installed speed bumps and warning signs along the highway.

The power lines and oil pipeline that traverse the park also pose a threat to the park’s wildlife. Birds and other animals can get electrocuted if they come into contact with the power lines, while oil spills from the pipeline can contaminate the park’s water sources. To minimize the impact of these infrastructures on the park’s ecosystem, TANAPA has implemented measures such as regular maintenance of the power lines and pipeline, and the installation of bird diverters to prevent electrocution.

Cultural Significance

Mikumi National Park is not only a wildlife sanctuary but also a cultural hub that is home to several ethnic communities, including the Maasai and the Wapogoro. The park offers visitors a unique opportunity to learn about the local cultures, traditions, and way of life.

The Maasai are a semi-nomadic tribe that have lived in the area for centuries. They are known for their distinctive red clothing, intricate beadwork, and cattle herding. Visitors can interact with the Maasai and learn about their customs and beliefs, such as their reverence for cattle and their coming-of-age ceremonies.

The Wapogoro are another ethnic group that call Mikumi National Park home. They are primarily farmers and traders and are known for their hospitality and warm welcome. Visitors can experience the Wapogoro way of life by participating in cultural tours, visiting local markets, and trying traditional foods.

In addition to the Maasai and the Wapogoro, there are several other ethnic groups in the area, each with their own unique culture and traditions. The park offers visitors a chance to learn about the diverse cultures of Tanzania and appreciate the rich cultural heritage of the region.

Overall, Mikumi National Park is not just a wildlife destination but also a cultural treasure trove that offers visitors a unique opportunity to learn about the local communities and their way of life.

Challenges and Threat

Mikumi National Park is facing a number of challenges and threats that are impacting the park’s ecosystem and the livelihoods of the communities that live around it. Some of the major challenges and threats are discussed below.

Human-Wildlife Conflict

Human-wildlife conflict is a major challenge facing Mikumi National Park. Wildlife such as elephants, lions, and buffalos often leave the park and venture into nearby communities, damaging crops and attacking livestock. This has led to conflicts between the park authorities and the local communities, as well as between the communities themselves. According to a research article, human-wildlife conflict is one of the biggest threats to the sustainability of the park.


Poaching is another major threat to the wildlife in Mikumi National Park. The park is home to a variety of mammals, including elephants, lions, and giraffes, which are targeted by poachers for their ivory and other body parts. The poaching of these animals has led to a decline in their populations, which is a major concern for the park authorities. According to a research article, poaching is one of the biggest challenges facing the park.

Livelihoods of Local Communities

The livelihoods of the local communities around Mikumi National Park are also a major concern. The communities are among the poorest in Tanzania, with an average income of around 0.45 USD per person per day, according to a research article. The communities rely heavily on agriculture and livestock farming, which are often impacted by human-wildlife conflict. This has led to food shortages and poverty in the area. The park authorities are working to address these issues by involving the local communities in conservation efforts and providing them with alternative livelihoods.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the entrance fees for visitors to the park?

The entrance fees for Mikumi National Park vary depending on the nationality of the visitor. As of 2024, the fees for non-resident adults are USD 36 per day, while children under the age of 16 pay USD 12 per day. Resident adults pay TZS 6,000 per day, and children under the age of 16 pay TZS 2,360 per day. Visitors can pay the entrance fee at the park gate.

Where can I find accommodation near the park?

There are several accommodation options available near Mikumi National Park, including lodges and campsites. The park itself has two lodges, the Mikumi Wildlife Camp and the Vuma Hills Tented Camp. There are also several lodges and campsites located just outside the park, such as the Stanley’s Kopje Camp and the Tan-Swiss Lodge. Visitors are advised to book their accommodation in advance, especially during peak season.

What types of safaris are available for tourists?

Tourists can choose from a variety of safaris to explore Mikumi National Park. Game drives are the most popular type of safari, and they can be arranged through tour operators or directly with the park administration. Walking safaris are also available, but they must be accompanied by an armed ranger. Visitors can also opt for a night game drive to see the park’s nocturnal animals.

How can I contact the park administration for inquiries?

Visitors can contact the park administration through our website or via email at info@wildsofafrica.com. The park also has a telephone number, +255 754 095 405, which visitors can call for inquiries.

Which species of animals can be seen in the park?

Mikumi National Park is home to a diverse range of wildlife, including elephants, lions, giraffes, zebras, and wildebeests. Visitors may also spot buffalo, impala, and warthogs, as well as several species of primates, such as baboons and vervet monkeys. The park is also a birdwatcher’s paradise, with over 400 species of birds recorded.

When is the ideal season to plan a visit for wildlife viewing?

The best time to visit Mikumi National Park for wildlife viewing is during the dry season, which runs from June to October. During this time, the animals gather around water sources, making them easier to spot. However, visitors should be aware that the park can get crowded during peak season, so they may want to consider visiting during the shoulder season for a more peaceful experience.